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King's/PP contains:
<-- See earlier
JEN The Papers of John Edwin Nixon
JER Papers Relating to John Earle Raven
JHB The Papers of Julian Heward Bell
JHC Papers Relating to Sir John Harold Clapham
JKS Papers Relating to James Kenneth Stephen
JMK The Papers of John Maynard Keynes
JRLH The Papers of John Reginald Lang-Hyde
JRNS The Papers of John Richard Nicholas Stone
JS The Papers of John Saltmarsh
JTS The Papers of John Tresidder Sheppard
JVR The Papers of Professor Joan Violet Robinson
See later -->
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The Papers of John Maynard Keynes

Title The Papers of John Maynard Keynes
Reference GBR/0272/PP/JMK
Creator Keynes, John Maynard (1883-1946), economist
Covering Dates 1868–1951 (1868-1951; 2004-5)
Extent and Medium 143 boxes and 69 volumes; paper
Repository King's College Archive Centre, Cambridge
Content and context

John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge on 5 June 1883, the son of Florence and Dr. John Neville Keynes, Fellow of Pembroke College and later University Registrar. He was educated at Eton, and came up to King's College, Cambridge as a scholar in 1902. After he was awarded his undergraduate degree, he entered the Home Civil Service and served for two years at the India Office. He left the civil service in 1908, however, and in 1909 was elected a Fellow of King's College and remained so until his death. He was lecturer in Economics from 1911 to 1937 and in 1919 he also accepted the post of Second Bursar of the college. In 1924 he began his memorable tenure as first bursar, changing completely the philosophy by which the college managed its assets, and in 1925, he married Lydia Lopokova.

Despite his retirement from the India Office, Keynes was to be found in London almost as often as in Cambridge, placing his services at the disposal of his government, particularly when called upon by the Treasury. He served on a number of government committees in the 1920s and 30s, but - as with everyone else - it was during the two world wars that most was demanded of him. During World War I he became a civil servant in the Treasury and by 1917 had gained a position of some responsibility. He was the Treasury's representative at the peace conference that ended the war. At the invitation of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Keynes placed his services at the disposal of his country again in 1940, after war had broken out a second time. As an advisor to the treasury, he was much involved in both the problems of war finance and plans for the later transition from war to peace. Among other things, Keynes acted as one of the negotiators of Lend-Lease, and played a leading part at the Bretton Woods conference. He was rewarded for his services during the first war with a C.B., and for those during the second by elevation to the peerage, becoming Baron Keynes of Tilton.

It was not as a servant of college or country, however, that Keynes has made his name, but as a brilliant and original economist. Keynes was a prolific writer who shunned his colleagues' attempts to create an economic 'grand theory' in favor of short works that addressed the fiscal problems of the day as quickly and competently as possible. In the process he did, nevertheless, create something lasting - what we now call Keynesian economics - the cornerstone of which were his theories on saving and investment, and their relation to rising and falling prices. These were elaborated in his 'Treatise on money' (1930) and his later 'General theory of employment, interest and money' (1936). Through his leadership in a number of societies and his editorship of the 'Economic Journal' he had great influence on the next generation of economists, and through his editorship of the 'Nation and Athenaeum' and 'New Statesman and Nation' he influenced his contemporaries more widely.

He died on Easter Sunday, 21 April 1946, after several years of ill-health.

This collection contains both the economic and personal papers of J.M. Keynes, spanning his childhood and student days, his work for the India Office and Treasury, drafts and other materials associated with the great economic treatises that bear his name, and assorted papers pertaining to his involvement in various academic and financial enterprises. The series within this collection have been arranged under the following categories: General subjects (IA-HP), Visits (RV-AV), Articles, speeches and broadcasts (SS-L), Editorial responsibilities and society memberships (EJ-BAA), Business interests (NM-BE), Business personal (BP-SY), Educational interests (OC-UA), Personal papers (PP) and Miscellaneous papers (MM).

In his will, J.M. Keynes instructed his executors, Geoffey Keynes and Richard F. Kahn, to divide his papers in two on his death, into the 'personal' and 'economic', Keynes to take responsibility for the former and Kahn the latter. The will further directed that Geoffrey Keynes deposit his share in King's College Library and that on the executor's death ownership pass to the College. Smaller additions to the juvenilia, family papers and correspondence making up this part of the collection were made by members of the Keynes family subsequently. Richard F. Kahn was also instructed to hand over the much larger accumulation of writing and correspondence on economic theory, the economy and business affairs in his care, this time to the Marshall Library in the University's Faculty of Economics and Politics. In succeeding decades, further transfers of papers were made to the Marshall Library, the most significant in 1976 from Keynes' country house at Tilton, Sussex. It was during their time at the Marshall Library that selected economics papers became the core of the Royal Economic Society's edition of Keynes' works 'The collected writings of John Maynard Keynes' (30 vols., London and Cambridge: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press, 1971-89). In 1986, the Faculty Board of Economics and Politics presented its share to King's College Library, reuniting the entire collection in the Modern Archive Centre.

In 2006 some documents were recovered from the College stores, comprising drafts and copies of articles by J.M. Keynes and some letters to him. These had been recovered from the basement of the Marshall Library c. 1983. They have been accessioned into the collection, largely into a new section JMK/ET and into the appropriate articles and correspondence sections.

The section JMK/MM contains papers that came to the collection from other sources than JMK or his family.

Access and Use

For permission to quote in print from the unpublished papers, apply to the Librarian, King's College, Cambridge CB2 1ST. For permission to quote in print from those writings of Keynes which were part of the 'Collected writings' series, contact the Archivist for further details.

Please cite as King's College Archive Centre, Cambridge, The Papers of John Maynard Keynes, JMK

Further information

The biographical information above has been taken from the 'Dictionary of National Biography, 1941-50', ed. L.G. Wickham Legg and E.T. Williams, pp. 452-7 and 'John Maynard Keynes, 1883-1946: Fellow and Bursar' (Cambridge: printed for King's College, 1949).

The King's College Archive Centre also holds the papers of Lydia Lopokova Keynes, wife of J.M. Keynes, famous in her own right as a ballet dancer. These were formerly considered part of the papers of J.M. Keynes and had the reference JMK/LLK. With this version of the Keynes catalogue, however, the decision was made to begin listing the papers of Lydia Keynes separately. They are now catalogued as King's College Archive Centre, Cambridge, LLK. For more information, see the separate catalogue. See 'New Perspectives on Keynes' (library shelfmark T7T H Cot) ed. Allin Cottrell (p 163ff) for Jacky Cox's history of the Keynes Papers.

A full catalogue of the papers of John Maynard Keynes is available on the College web site, and in hard copy in the Archive Centre. These copies have been indexed.

In addition, the papers transferred from the Marshall Library were accompanied by a useful index which is now held in the Modern Archive Centre. Since the reunion of the Keynes papers at King's, this index has been updated to take account of: 1) the reorganization and renumbering of certain sections of the collection; 2) the amalgamation of material from the later Tilton transfers with existing files on the same subject; and 3) the full listing of Keynes' personal correspondence, catalogued as JMK/PP/45. Index cards are arranged in alphabetical order by correspondent. Each card itemises the letters exchanged between the correspondent and Keynes, giving their dates and file references. Letters from persons writing on behalf of institutions, societies, businesses, etc., are often further indexed under the name of the organisation. Insitutional entries of this kind are cross-referenced back to the personal names of their representatives on the card's reverse.

The first summary lists of the Keynes Papers were undertaken at King's College and the Marshall Libraries in the mid 1950s by, respectively, A.N.L. Munby and Mrs. MacDonald. Both parts of the collection were extensively consulted on the basis of these lists. On their amalgamation at King's College, however, the opportunity was taken to produce an integrated, more detailed catalogue; one which would take account of the accumulation of material since the initial transfer and recognise that the division between the economic and personal had resulted in anomalies. Completed in 1993, the new catalogue, for the material formerly housed in the Marshall Library (broadly JMK/IA-UA), retained the arrangement of the earlier list where material was filed by subject. Within subject headings, however, certain files were reorganised, their contents amalgamated with files on the same subjects from later transfers, especially those items previously catalogued as JMK/MM, and their descriptions enlarged. The original box list of the personal papers (JMK/PP) was completely reworked. In certain cases to improve coherence, material was moved from one economics section to another or from the personal to the economics parts of the collection. The former document references in this catalogue can aid in tracing these alterations in position. Earlier versions of the catalogues of the Keynes Papers are also available for consultation in hard copy in the Modern Archive Centre.

The J.M. Keynes papers were microfilmed in 1993. Copies can be purchased from Chadwyck-Healey. Some of the documents in the collection have been published in 'The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes' (Macmillan St Martin's Press, for the Royal Economic Society). See JMK/MM/Kent (2) for corrections to that publication.

Index Terms
Cambridge, Cambridgeshire
Economics
India
War
Keynes, John Maynard (1883-1946) Baron Keynes, economist
King's/PP/JMK contains:
IA India Office clerk.
3 envelopes; paper.
1906–1908
IC 'Indian currency and finance' (1913).
1 box; paper.
1909–1913
ID Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance 1913-14.
Creator: Great Britain and Ireland. Treasury. Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance.
1 box; paper.
1868–1914
IE Indian Fiscal Commission 1921.
2 envelopes; paper.
1921–1922
IF Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance 1926.
2 envelopes; paper.
1926
ET Early Treasury Department documents.
paper.
3 Aug. 1914–3 Nov. 1914
T Treasury official 1915-19: war finance.
Creator: Great Britain and Ireland. Treasury.
4 boxes; paper.
1915–1919
PT Treasury official 1915-19: planning post-war reconstruction.
Creator: Great Britain and Ireland. Treasury.
1 box; paper.
1916–1920
RT Treasury official 1915-19: Paris Peace Conference.
Creator: Great Britain and Ireland. Treasury.
3 boxes; paper.
1917–1938
EC 'Economic consequences of the peace' (1919).
4 boxes; paper.
1919–1925
FI International finance and German reparations 1919-23.
Approximately 1.5 boxes; paper.
1919–1932
RP 'Revision of the treaty' (1922).
Approximately 1 box; paper.
1918–1924
IN 'Method of index numbers' 1909.
4 envelopes and 3 files; paper.
1905–1947
TP 'Treatise on probability' (1921).
4.5 boxes; paper.
1907–1927
MR 'Tract on monetary reform' (1923).
4 envelopes; paper.
1920–1929
TM 'Treatise on money' (1930).
2.5 boxes; paper.
1909–1935
C Cotton 1926-31.
3 envelopes; paper.
1926–1932
ND Committee on National Debt and Taxation (Colwyn Committee) 1924-5.
Creator: Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Board of Inland Revenue. Committee on National Debt and Taxation (Colwyn Committee).
1 envelope; paper.
1924–1925
MC Committee on Finance and Industry (Macmillan Committee) 1930-1.
Creator: Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Treasury. Committee on Finance and Industry (Macmillan Committee).
1 box; paper.
1929–1931
EA Economic Advisory Council 1930-9.
Creator: Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Cabinet Office. Economic Advisory Council.
Approximately 1.5 boxes; paper.
1930–1939
LB Royal Commission on Lotteries and Betting 1932.
Creator: Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Home Office. Royal Commission on Lotteries and Betting.
1 envelope; paper.
1932
P 'Essays in persuasion' (1931).
3 envelopes; paper.
1930–1933
B 'Essays in biography' (1933).
5 envelopes; paper.
1932–1934
GTE 'General theory of employment, interest and money' (1936).
3 boxes; paper.
1931–1947
W War 1939-46.
2.5 boxes; paper.
1939–1946
HP 'How to pay for the war' (1940).
1.5 boxes; paper.
1929–1940
RV Russian visit.
2 envelopes; paper.
1925–1929
AV American visits.
3 envelopes; paper.
1931–1934
SS Special subjects.
3 envelopes; paper.
1910–1935
A Articles, including book reviews and letters to the press.
Creator: Various.
11 boxes and 40 volumes; paper.
1905–1951
PS Speeches and lectures given outside Cambridge University.
2 boxes; paper.
1905–1946
BR Broadcasts.
4 envelopes; paper.
1924–1945
M Assorted memoranda.
2 envelopes; paper.
1918–1939
CAC Collaborative writing.
Creator: Various.
1 envelope; paper.
1920–1937
CO Comments by J.M. Keynes on articles, memoranda, etc., received.
3 boxes; paper.
1910–1946
L Letters.
Creator: Various.
8 boxes; paper.
1906–1946
EJ 'Economic Journal'.
Approximately 4 boxes; paper.
1885–1946
RES Royal Economic Society.
3 envelopes; paper.
1888–1945
GS 'Manchester Guardian Commercial': Reconstruction Supplements.
1.5 boxes; paper.
1921–1923
CEB Cambridge Economic Handbooks.
1 envelope; paper.
1923–1934
CE Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
1 envelope; paper.
1920–1921
RSS Royal Statistical Society.
1 envelope; paper.
1915–1945
BA British Academy.
1 envelope; paper.
1915–1946
ES Econometric Society.
1 envelope; paper.
1934–1945
NIS National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
1 envelope; paper.
1937–1944
LCE London and Cambridge Economic Service.
3 envelopes; paper.
1922–1929
BAA British Association for the Advancement of Science.
1 envelope; paper.
1915
NM National Mutual Life Assurance Society.
Approximately 4.5 boxes; paper.
1896–1945
NS 'Nation and Athenaeum'; 'New Statesman and Nation'.
3.5 boxes; paper.
1923–1946
PR P.R. Finance Co., Ltd.
6 envelopes; paper.
1923–1936
AD A.D. Investment Trust Ltd.
1 envelope; paper.
1921–1927
IIC Independent Investment Co., Ltd.
4 envelopes; paper.
1924–1946
BM Correspondence and memoranda exchanged with business houses.
2 boxes; paper.
1929–1945
WF Richard Thomas and Co., Ltd.
1 envelope; paper.
1940–1941
PC Provincial Insurance Co., Ltd.
4.5 boxes; paper.
1923–1946
BE Bank of England.
1 envelope; paper.
1941–1946
BP Publishing companies.
6 envelopes; paper.
1913–1946
SE Finance.
5 boxes; paper.
1910–1946
TH Tilton House.
1 box; paper.
1925–1937
IT Income tax.
Approximately 1 box; paper.
1907–1946
TC Tilton Co., Ltd.
1.5 boxes; paper.
1926–1946
G Gifts.
1 envelope; paper.
1934–1946
SY Syndicate 1920.
1 envelope; paper.
1919–1922
OC Organisations and clubs.
1 box; paper.
1894–1942
GE Eton College.
1 box; paper.
1940–1946
KC King's College.
3.5 boxes; paper.
1903–1946
UA University affairs.
10.5 boxes; paper.
1874–1946
PP Personal papers.
Aproximately 34 boxes and 23 volumes; paper.
1599–1989
MM Miscellaneous material, not part of the Keynes papers.
paper.
1852–2005

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