On February 24th 1943, Dr. Joseph Needham arrived in Southwest China. He had been sent by the British Council to aid the war effort there by facilitating the provision of laboratory equipment and scientific books and journals to Chinese scientists. He soon gained permission to establish the Sino-British Scientific Co-operation Office (SBSCO) (Zhong ying ke xue he zuo guan ???????), also known as the Sino-British Scientific Co-operation Bureau, in Chungking (Chongqing) ???, Szechuan (Sichuan) Province ???. By the time of his departure in April 1946, he had travelled extensively throughout Szechuan (Sichuan), Yunnan, and other parts of South, Southwest and Northwest China not under Japanese occupation, visiting universities and laboratories, factories and workshops, meeting people from all walks of life, especially scientists and other academics. During this time he also took every opportunity to visit sites of historic interest and to indulge in discussions with the scholars he met on his new passion, the history of Chinese science, collecting books and other materials on the subject. During this period Dr. Needham took around 1000 photographs, many on the often long and arduous journeys he undertook by truck to far-flung parts of the country. He did not carry a flash and the conditions under which the used films had to be changed and then stored took their toll. Many of the photographs show signs of over or under exposure, double exposure, scratching to the negatives and other wear and tear, sometimes to a very serious degree. Neither was Dr. Needham systematic in the use of the camera to keep a record of his travels. They are snapshots, taken where and when he could if the camera was to hand. The individual rolls of film and developed prints were grouped and labelled by Dr. Needham during and after his departure from China. They were not ordered in a strictly chronological sequence, and on only some did Dr. Needham made brief notes of places and people. Not all the photographs in the collection were taken by Dr. Needham. Some came from official sources, others from organisations and individuals, and among these, two of these were definitely taken in August 1942 before Dr. Needham's arrival. Where the source is known, it has been noted. In addition, 40 photographs (Gungho 9-48) of the Shantan Bailie School ?????? and co-operatives of the Chinese Industrial Co-operatives (CIC) (Zhong guo gong ye he zuo she ???????) movement were kindly donated by (Walter) Brian Harland (1903-2003) and Elisabeth Harland, though the photographs themselves appear to have come from the CIC.