Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein was born on 26 April 1889 in Vienna, the son of Karl Wittgenstein, a wealthy steel industrialist. He studied at the Technische Hochschule in Berlin-Charlottenburg whence he moved in 1908 to the University of Manchester to study aeronautics where he designed a primitive jet-turbine engine. The mathematics required for his studies in engineering brought him to consider the philosophy of mathematics and to seek out Bertrand Russell at Trinity College Cambridge, with whom he studied, at first on an unofficial basis. In January 1912 he was admitted to Trinity where he spent five terms before moving to Skjolden in Norway, where he thought he might work on logic in peaceful surroundings.
At the outbreak of war, Wittgenstein volunteered for the Austrian army, fighting on the Eastern and Southern fronts before he was captured by the Italians in 1918. During his incarceration, he was able to finish the work which was to become the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, later published in 1922. The war clearly had a profound effect on Wittgenstein, who, shortly after his release gave away the fortune that he had inherited from his father and resolved to lead a life of simplicity.
Wittgenstein now took up the career of schoolteacher, holding positions in a number of schools in Lower Austria, but he was not always sufficiently sensitive to the needs of the slower children. In 1926 he was forced to leave after hitting a young pupil, and he returned to Vienna to design a house for his sister.
In 1929, Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge on the prompting of Frank Ramsey and in June received the degree of PhD, submitting the Tractatus as his dissertation. In the following year he was elected to a senior research fellowship of Trinity College, which he held for six years. At the same time he was a lecturer in the Moral Sciences faculty, during which time the Blue and Brown books were dictated to his pupils. In 1939 he succeeded G E Moore as Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy. During WWII he worked as a porter in Guy's hospital and as a laboratory assistant in a laboratory in Newcastle looking into shell shock. He returned to his duties in Cambridge at the end of the war, but resigned from his chair in 1947. In 1948 and 49 he lived in Ireland but returned to England, dying in Cambridge in 1951.
Manuscripts 1914-51, typescripts 1927-1946, dictations 1930s, correspondence 1912-51, notes of lectures 1930-47
Given by The Wittgenstein Trustees
Not all items in this collection have the same provenance. On the reading of Wittgenstein's will, it was discovered that he had appointed three literary executors, G H von Wright, G E M Anscombe and Rush Rhees. In December 1951, Rhees received a box containing many of the manuscripts in this list. In 1952 and 1965 further material came to light in Austria and in 1967, 1976 and 1977 more typescript were found.
In May 1969, the literary executors gave all the Wittgenstein originals in their care to Trinity College
The papers are organised following the catalogue by Professor G H von Wright first published in the Philosophical Review, 78 (1969) and later in slightly amended forms in a number of publications, the last being Philosophical occasions, 1912-1951 ; Ludwig Wittgenstein; edited by James C. Klagge and Alfred Nordmann. The von Wright catalogue allocated numbers 101 following to manuscripts, 201 following to typescripts and 300 following to dictations. At a later date two further sections were added; section 401 following for correspondence and 501 following for notes of lectures