Henry Montagu Butler was born on 2 July 1833, the son of George and Sarah Maria Butler and was J R M Butler's father. In 1846 he entered Harrow, whence he moved to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1851. He graduates Senior Classic in 1855 and was elected a fellow of Trinity in the same year. In 1859 he became Headmaster of Harrow where he was to develop the modern side as well as encouraging the traditional disciplines. In 1861 he married Georgina Isabella Elliot, who died in 1883. In 1885 Butler was appointed Dean of Gloucester and the following year he was made Master of Trinity, a post that he held until his death in 1918. In 1888 he married Agnata Frances Ramsay, J R M Butler's mother.
Correspondence 1846-1918, diaries 1887-1917, journals 1873-1889, travel journals 1886-1905, sermons 1859-1916, commonplace book 1857-59, academical notes 1896-1912, testimonials for the headship of Harrow 1859